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Citing a whole work or monograph (novel, book, text):

First Citation:

First Name, Last Name, Title (Place of Publication, Year), p. .

 

Subsequent citations: only author or authors’ last name.

 

Example:

1)      Edward H. Judge and John W. Langdon, Connections: A World History; Combined Volume (New York, 2009), p. 5.

All subsequent citations (except when they are right after each other):

2)      Judge and Langdon, p. 7.

 

Citing a text contained in an anthology or collection:

Author, Title in Collection Title, ed. First name, Last Name (Place of Publication, Year), p.  .

 

Example:

1)      Francis Bacon, Novum Organum in Sources of World Civilization. Vol. II; Second Custom Edition for Long Island University, ed. Oliver A. Johnson (Upper Saddle River, N.J., 2008), p. 8.

Subsequent reference (except when they are right after each other):

2)      Bacon, p. 9.

 

Example:

3)      Barack Obama, “A More Perfect Union,” in Honors History Anthology, Spring 2010, p. 77.

Subsequent reference:

4)      Obama, p. 79.

 

Citing other texts in your footnotes in the same paper from the same collection:

Author, Title in Shortened Collection Title, p. .

Example:

5)      Olaudah Equiano, The Life of Gustavus Vassa in Sources of World Civilization, p. 69.

Subsequent reference, except when they are right after each other:

6)      Equiano, p. 70.

 

Citing articles:

First Name, Last Name, “Article Title,” Journal  vol.:number (year): p. .

Example,

1)      Nicolás Agrait, “Castilian Military Reform under the Reign of Alfonso XI (1312-50),” Journal of Medieval Military History vol. 3 (2005): 88-126.

Subsequent references (except when they are right after each other):

2)      Agrait, p. 93.

 

Use of Ibid.: the term Ibid. is an abbreviation of the term Ibidem, Latin for “same.”  It is used when you have multiple references to the same work very close to each other. 

 

If two back-to-back footnotes are absolutely the same use Ibid.

Example,

1)      Edward H. Judge and John W. Langdon, Connections: A World History; Combined Volume (New York, 2009), p. 5.

2)      Ibid.

 

Use Ibid., p. ., if you are using the same work, but with different page numbers

Example,

3)      Judge and Langdon, pp. 34-38.

4)      Ibid., p. 72.

 

Remember, footnotes constitute a whole list of your references. Since you are required to use them, you do not need to provide a list of references at the end of your paper.  Furthermore, you only need one full reference to each work (not one in each page).